Showing posts with label Solanum nigrum. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Solanum nigrum. Show all posts

Friday, January 16, 2015

Solanum nigrum, Black Night Shade, Manatakkali, kakamachi, Mokoi





Solanum nigrum L.
[Solanum americanum Mill. is an accepted name]
Family: Solanaceae

English: Black Night Shade
Arabic: بندوره، مسلحه، رمرام
Chinese: 龙葵
Hindi: Mokoi मोकोय
Manipuri: লৈপুঙখাংগ Leipungkhangga
Tamil: மணதக்காளி Manatakkali
Telugu: కామంచి kamanchi

Name is various languages: AFRIKAANS: nastergal, galbessie, nasgal, nasgalbossie, wildenastagal; AJA: gbohi; AMHARIC:  awt; ASSAMESE: pokmow, pichkati; BADAGA: ga:ke; BELARUSAN: paslen cherni; BEMBÉ:  moussosso; BENGALI: gurkamai, kakmachi, tulidun; BICOLANO, CENTRAL: lagkakum, lubi- lubi; BINUKID: ketuglew, muti; BONTOC, CENTRAL: am ti, anti; BRETON: froud, sanab;  BUHID: samaray, sanaray; CEBUANO: bolagtab, hulablub, kama tis-manok, kuru-kamatis, lubi- lubi, malasili; CHINESE, MANDARIN: long kui; CHINESE, WÚ: ma ti cai, ye hai jiao; CHINESE,  YUE: long kui, dong han cai; CHUWABU: mai-mati-mati; CRIOULO, CAPE VERDE: santa-maria,  malagueta-de-galinha, uva-de-santa maria; CZECH: lilek černý, lilek; DANISH: sort natskygge;  DIGO: mnavu; DUTCH: zwarte nachtschade, agoema; ENGLISH: wonderberry, black nightshade,  common nightshade, poisonberry; ESTONIAN: must maavits; FILIPINO: konti, black nightshade;  FINNISH:  mustakoiso;  FON:  gboma;  FRENCH:  morelle  noire,  tue-chien;  GALICIAN:  herba  moura;  GBE,  WACI:  asukusɛ;  GEN:  gbonyamɛ;  GERMAN:  Nachtschatten,  schwarze  Nachtschatten, schwarze Teufelskirsche, falsche Blaubeere; GIKUYU: managu; GONJA: katare,  katere; GREEK: agriotomatia, styfnos; GUJARATI: piludi; HANUNOO: dutun ilamnu, nunti;  HEBREW: solanum shah̤or, ‛invey shu‛al; HINDI: makoi, gurkamai, kabaiya; HINDUSTANI:  makoiya; HMONG-DAW: zaub iab; HMONG-NJUA: zaub ab; HUNGARIAN: fekete csúcsor;  IBALOI: natang-ni-aso, nateng; IFUGAO: am ti, amti-iitang; INDONESIAN: leunca; ISNAG:  bakohan; ITALIAN: solano nero, erba morella, morella minore, ballerina, pomidorella; IVATAN:  malanateng,  nateng;  JAPANESE:  inu-hôzuki;  KALAGAN:  am ti;  KANKANAEY:  am ti;  KANNADA: karikaachi gida; KASHMIRI: makō; KAZAKH: paslen chernyj; KISI, SOUTHERN:  sahéyo; KWANYAMA: ndemukolenghula; LATVIAN: melaā naktene; LITHUANIAN: juodoji  kiauliauogė; MACEDONIAN: crn zrnec; MALAY: terong telunjuk; MALAYALAM: thulasi,  manatakkali;  MALTESE:  gheneb  id-dib;  MANINKAKAN:  fassa;  MANU’A  SAMOAN:  magalogalo, magalo, polo vao; MAORI: raupeti, remuroa, pooporo, poroporo, poroporo raupeti;  MARANAO: moti; MARATHI: ghati, kakmachi, kamoni, laghukavali, meko; MONGOLIAN:  khar  chesentser;  MÒORÉ:  ludo,  nõraog-kubre;  MORISYEN:  bred  martin;  NDALI:  inafu;  NEPALI: thulo bihin; NGUNDI: mantsa; NIUE: polo kai, polo fua; NORWEGIAN: svartsøtvier;  NYANJA: mnadzi; PANJABI, EASTERN: mako, kambei, kachmach, riaungi, mkŏŏ; POLISH:  psianka czarna, psianka; PORTUGUESE: erva moura, erva moira, maria pretinha; POTAWATOMI:  acib’nimic; RAROTONGAN: poro; ROMANIAN: solanum; RONGA: mussowa, chiauenequene;  RUSSIAN:  paslen  cherniy,  paslyon;  SAMBAL,  BOTOLAN:  unti;  SAMOAN:  māgalo,  polo  vao; SANSKRIT: kakamachi, kakamaci; SENA: nadzi; SERBO-CROATIAN: pomoćnica, crna;  SPANISH:  hierba  mora,  solano  negro,  tomatitos,  tomatillos  del  diablo;  STELLINGWERFS:  hondebeien, nachtschade, nachtschaduw, nachtschaede; SUBANON: sili-sili; SWAHILI: mnavu;  SWEDISH: nattskatta; TAGALOG: kanti, anti, kama -kamatisan, kamatis-kamatisan, konti, kunti,  lubi-lubi, onti; TAJIKI: anguri sagak; TAMIL: munatakali, manathakkali, manattakkali; TAUSUG:  muti; TELUGU: kachchipundu, kachi, kamanchi, kaman chichettu, kasaka; TIRURAY: kawat;  TONGAN: polo kai; TUMBUKA: msaka, musaka; TURKISH: köpeküzümü, karayaban yasemini,  köpek memesi; TURKMEN: adaty itüzüm; URDU: makoya; VLAAMS: zwarte nachtschade;  WAAMA: kancenfa; WÁRAY-WÁRAY: mala-sili; YAO: mnesi; YORUBA: odu, ogunmo. [Cultivated vegetables of the world: a multilingual onomasticon]
Ayurvedic uses: Sotha, Arsha, hrudroga, Jvara, Kandu, Kushta, Prameha, Hikka, Chardi, Netraroga (API, Vol-2)
Whole plant and fruit used. Psoriasis, leucoderma, hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), chronic dysentery, hemorrhoids, chronic fevers, cardiac oedema, gout and rheumatoid arthritis. [Compendia of World’s Medicinal Flora]
Toxic  glycoalkaloids  in  the  plant,  the  highest  concentration  in  the  green  immature  berries.  All  kinds of animals can be poisoned after ingesting nightshade  including cattle, sheep, poultry and swine. Children have been  poisoned after ingesting unripe berries. Plant extract cathar- tic, diuretic, alterative, used in piles, liver troubles, leprosy  and dysentery; shoots given in skin diseases, scabies, eczema  and  psoriasis.  Branches  and  fruits  applied  as  a  vulnerary  and antiinflammatory; an infusion drunk as a tonic. Berries  bitter,  laxative,  aphrodisiac,  diuretic.  Unripe  fruits  applied  to  aching  teeth  and  squeezed  on  baby’s  gums  to  ease  pain  during  teething;  fruit  for  jaundice,  diarrhea,  fever  and  eye  ailments; extract of berries, leaves and stems used for skin  diseases. Leaves used for stomachache, female ailments and  liver disorders; leaf poultice applied to rheumatic joints; raw  leaves eaten to cure mouth and nose blisters; leaves decoction  diuretic, laxative, for swellings on the body; leaves and fruits  pounded and the extract used for tonsillitis; leaves cooked and  eaten to cure jaundice; leaves fried and eaten for cough. Roots  boiled in milk and given to children as tonic. Stem of Vitis  vinifera mixed with Solanum nigrum and Cestrum parqui and  applied to treat inflammation. Magico-religious beliefs, ritual.  Veterinary medicine, root mixed with pepper and ginger is  fed to cows to reduce gas formation in the stomach. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and poisonous Plants]
Traditional Medicinal Uses: The stem, leaves and roots are used as a decoction for wounds, tumours and cancerous growths, sores and as an astringent.  They  are  also  used  as  a condiment,  stimulant,  tonic,  for  treatment  of piles,  dysentery, abdominal pain, inflammation of bladder, relief of asthma, bronchitis, coughs, eye ailments, itch, psoriasis, skin diseases, eczema, ulcer, relief of  cramps,  rheumatism,  neuralgia and expulsion of excess  fluids.  The roots  are  used  as  an  expectorant.  The  plant  has  yielded  medicines  for  sore  throats,  coughs and digestive problems. It has also been used as an agricultural insecticide.™ Europeans in Africa used the plant to treat convulsions. It is used by the  Africans for treating headache, ulcers and as a sedative. The whole plant is used  for the treatment  of dermatitis,  inflammation,  heavy  female  discharge,  diarrhoea and dysentery. It is also used as a diuretic and febrifuge. Whole plant  is decocted for abscesses, cancer of the cervix, inflammation, leucorrhoea and  open sores. Young  shoots  are consumed as  virility tonic for men and to treat  dysmenorrhoea in females. In Indochina, the leaves are used as purgative and  high blood pressure lowering agents while the fruits are used as laxatives. [A Guide to Medicinal Plants]
Garhwalis and ethnic communities of Sagar district use leaf to treat inflammation of testicles. Leaves and fruits of the species are widely used in tribal and Ayurvedic systems. [HERBAL CURES: TRADITIONAL APPROACH]
Plant—anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, sedative, diuretic, laxative, antiseptic; fresh extract is used for inflammatory swellings, enlargement of liver and spleen and in cirrhosis of liver. Berries— antidiarrhoeal, antipyretic. Berries and flowers—prescribed in cough and cold. Leaves— applied hot to swollen testicles; paste used as poultice to gout, rheumatic swellings and skin diseases. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]
 125 g of fresh leaves is boiled in 3–4 cups (750–1000 mL) of water daily for 10–15 min. When 1 cup (250 mL) of water remains, then it is fi ltered with a piece of cloth; used to treat swelling, skin diseases, infl amed and painful parts of body and to clean wounds and mouth sores. Half a cup (125 mL) of decoction (at one time) is applied 3–4 times per day for 6–7 days for mouth sores.   Diseases Cured:    Body and joint swelling, skin diseases, mouth sores, infl amed and painful body parts; to clean wounds.   Ethnobotanical Uses:   Young leaves are used as spinach ( sag ) and also used as fodder by goats, sheep, and cattle. Berries are edible. [ Medicinal Plant Biodiversity of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan]
The leaves and berries, especially when unripe, contain the alkaloid solanine and the plant, although poisonous in Europe, appears to be harmless in Jamaica and South Africa. In Africa both this and a number of other species of Solanum are used like spinach. In addition to solanine the plant is said to contain an unidentified alkaloid, saponin and betaine. In Africa and Jamaica the leaves have, or have had, a reputation as a local anodyne for inflammation. The plant is also employed for treatment of fevers of various kinds. A paste of the green berries is used by the Zulus for ringworm. [MEDlCINAL PLANTS OF JAMAICA. PARTS 1 & 11]
Leaves are used against Asthma. Method of use:  Dry the leaves in shadow and prepare green tea using dry leaves and take 3-4 cups in a day. [MEDICINAL PLANTS OF SINDH ]
The leaf is applied  as a poultice on gouty joints and rheumatism.  A fluid  extract of the leaves and stems is used  on piles, gonorrhoea, dropsy  and enlargements of  the liver and spleen.  A decoction of the plantisusedasfomentation  forsore  eyesand  various skin diseases.
In  Rhodesia, the plant is used  in the treatment of malaria,  black-water fever  and dysentery  and in Mexico the fruit  is a popular remedy  for erysipelas. In the  Philippines, the fruit  is a  reputed cure for  diabetes,  and  in  Bengal the  berries are used for  fever, diarrhoea, eye  diseases  and hydrophobia.  The unripefruit  is ground  into a paste and applied  on ringworm.  In  Mauritius a  poultice  of  the  plant  is  applied  for  relief  of  abdominal  pain  and  inflammation  of  the  bladder.  In  Europe, it is used in the treatment of headaches, ulcers, wounds and as a  diuretic and  emetic.  Italians use it as an  antispasmodic, diaphoretic, emollient  and  sedative. In  Africa,  the young shoots are eaten  as a vegetable.  The ripe fruits  are made into jam and  used  as  a  substitute  for  raisins  in  plum  pudding. [M edicinal Plants(Indigenous and Exotic)  Used in Ceylon

380 Published articles of Solanum nigrum
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Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana