Wednesday, September 27, 2017

Cissus quadrangularis, हड़जोड़, হাড়জোড়া, ಮಂಗರವಳ್ಳಿ, ചങ്ങലംപരണ്ട, నల్లేరు, பிரண்டை, เพชรสังฆาต, Devil's Backbone

Cissus quadrangularis L.
Family: Vitaceae

Synonyms: Cissus bifida Schumach. & Thonn., Cissus edulis Dalzell, Cissus quadrangula L., Cissus quadrangula Salisb., Cissus succulenta (Galpin) Burtt-Davy, Cissus tetragona Harv., Cissus tetraptera Hook.f., Cissus triandra Schumach. & Thonn., Saelanthus quadragonus (L.) Forssk., Vitis quadrangularis (L.) Wall. ex Wight, Vitis succulenta Galpin

Vernacular names:
  • English: Devil's Backbone
  • Bangla: হাড়জোড়া
  • Hindi: हड़जोड़ hadjod
  • Kannada: ಮಂಗರವಳ್ಳಿ mangaravalli
  • Kinyarwanda: Umubogora
  • Malayalam: ചങ്ങലംപരണ്ട
  • Odia: ହାଡ଼ଭଙ୍ଗା 
  • Sinhala: Hiressa
  • Sanskrit: Amara, Asthisamhara
  • Tamil: பிரண்டை pirandai
  • Telugu: నల్లేరు nalleru
  • Thai: เพชรสังฆาต
  • Vietnamese: Hồ đằng bốn cạnh
Description: Vine, rambling shrub, herbaceous, climbing, scandent, sprawling, jointed stems, quadrangular and four-winged succulent stems rooting at the nodes, young branches winged bearing long slender tendrils, simple leaves broadly ovate, flowers in clusters at nodes, perianth green with red lobes, apiculate berries, tender leaves as vegetable.

Aphrodisiac, carminative [Medicinal Plants Kerala Ag. University]

Used in Ayurveda, Sidha and Unani. Presence of calcium oxalate crystals, irritating action of the fresh stem on the skin. Powdered root and stem specifically used in bone fracture. Root decoction antioxidant, widely used as remedy for hemorrhoids, in the treatment of gastric ulcers, peptic ulcer disease, dysentery; crushed stem and roots used as a plaster for bone fractures, analgesic, haemostatic. Whole plant infusion purgative. Succulent stem crushed with onion given orally for asthma; stem juice applied on swellings, body pains and bone fracture; stem juice for irregular menstruation and scurvy, dropped into ear for earache and into nose for epistaxis; stem paste for fertility, applied on rheumatic disorders; stem decoction in lime water taken as stomachic and alterative; paste of shoot for burns and wounds. Ash of leaves and shoots in bowel complaints and digestive troubles. Veterinary medicine, leaves infusion for diarrhea of calves; leaf paste applied on bone fracture; leaves ground with those of Pedalium murex and the decoction given in fevers; leaves of Crotalaria verrucosa along with those of Cissus quadrangularis pounded and given for ephemeral fever; stem fed in the bone fracture of cattle; stem juice with salt given to cure anorexia; roots of Indigofera trita along with stem bark of Balanites aegyptiacus, stem of Cissus quadrangularis and Tinospora cordifolia pounded and the extract given in impaction; stem and the leaves of Erythroxylum monogynum pounded and the extract applied over the fractured area and bandaged; stem extract given in dysentery; stem paste applied on sprains and swellings; warm crushed plant applied locally on wounds of oxen. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Phytoconstituents: Quadrangularins A-C, 5-amyrin, 5-amyrone, resveratrol, piceatannol, pallidol,parthenocissine A and others.  Whole plant is used for urinary schistosomiasis in Mali.[A Guide to Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated, Scientific and Medicinal Approach]

A  mixture  of stem  powder  and wheat flour  in  1:1  ratio  is  fed  to animals  to  cure  fractures  and  dislocations  of  bones. [Herbal Cures: Traditional Approach]

The leaves and young shoots are powerful alteratives.  The juice of the stem is a reputed  cure  for  scurvy  and irregular  menstruation.  The juice is dropped into  the  ear for otorrhoea and into the nose for epistaxis.  The root is used as a specific for fractures of bones. In Tanganyika, the leaf is used for treating ulcers and wounds, the root for  myalgia and  the juice of the stem for earache. In central Africa, a decoction of the stem is given for Menorrhagia, palpitation  of the heart and as an anthelmintic.  Externally, a poultice of the plant is applied for  muscular pains.  This plant  is also used  as a fish poison. [Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Used in Ceylon]

The fresh leaves and pounded stems are applied to burns, wounds and also to saddle sores of horses, camels, etc. The stem is also used for gastrointestinal complaints or as a stomachic sometimes taken in the form of the succulent stem boiled and sugared. In Guinea the stems and leaves are given to cattle to induce milk and in Senegal a decoction of the stems and leaves is used as a friction and wash in pains with fever and in malaria. [Medicinal Plants in Tropical West Africa]

270 Published articles of  Cissus quadrangularis

Monday, July 10, 2017

Henbane, Hyoscyamus niger, Kurasaaie vamu, jusquiane, Meimendro, dente cavallino, Meimendro,

Hyoscyamus niger L.
Family: Solanaceae

Synonyms: Hyoscarpus niger (L.) Dulac, Hyoscyamus agrestis Kit., Hyoscyamus auriculatus Ten., Hyoscyamus bohemicus F.W.Schmidt, Hyoscyamus lethalis Salisb., Hyoscyamus niger var. annuus Sims, Hyoscyamus niger var. chinensis Makino, Hyoscyamus officinarum Crantz, Hyoscyamus pallidus Waldst. & Kit. ex Willdenow, Hyoscyamus persicus Boiss. & Buhse, Hyoscyamus pictus Roth, Hyoscyamus syspirensis K.Koch, Hyoscyamus verviensis Lej., Hyoscyamus vulgaris Neck.
  • English: Henbane
  • Bengali : Khorasani ajwan 
  • Gujrati : Khurasanee ajma, Khurasanee ajmo 
  • Hindi : Khurasanee ajvayan, 
  • Kannada : Khurasanee, Ajawaana 
  • Malayalam : Khurasaanee, Paarasika, Yavaani 
  • Marathi : Khurasanee ova 
  • Punjabi : Khurasanee ajvain, Bangidewana 
  • Tamil : Kurasanee Vomam 
  • Telugu : Kurasanee vamu, Khurasanee omam 
  • Urdu : Ajvayanee Khursanee 
  • Arabic: بنج أسود
  • Armenian: Բանգի սև
  • Azerbaijani: Qara batbat
  • Basque: Erabelar
  • Bulgarian: Черна попадийка
  • Chinese: 天仙子
  • Czech: Blín černý
  • Danish: Bulmeurt
  • Esperanto: Nigra hiskiamo
  • Estonian: Koera-pöörirohi
  • Finnish: Hullukaali, villikaali
  • French: jusquiane
  • Galician: Meimendro
  • German: Schwarzes Bilsenkraut
  • Hindi: Khurasani ajwain
  • Icelandic: Nornajurt
  • Ido: Hiskiamo
  • Irish: Gafann
  • Italian: dente cavallino
  • Kashubian: Czôrnô kadzelnica
  • Kazakh: Қара меңдуана
  • Korean: 사리풀
  • Latin: Folia sive Herba Hyoscyami
  • Nepali: र्खुसानी ज्वाँनु Khursani jwanu, बजरभाङ्ग Bajarabhaang
  • Norwegian: Villrot
  • Persian: بذرالبنج (گیاه)
  • Polish: bielun
  • Romanian: bob
  • Russian: белена ерная
  • Sanskrit: Parseek yawani
  • Spanish: hierba loca
  • Swedish: bolmört
  • Upper Sorbian: Čorny woblěd
  • Welsh: Llewyg yr iâr

Description: Plants annual or biennial, up to 1.5 m tall, pubescent to hairy. Leaves sessile, 5-12.5 x 2.8-7.5 cm, ovate-oblong, sinuate to pinnately lobed, ± semi-amplexicaul, glandular-pubescent, especially on the nerves and margins. Calyx 14-16 mm long, up to 26 mm in fruit, campanulate to infundibuliform, ± urceolate in fruit, nervose, glandular-pilose; lobes triangular, aristate. Corolla (18-) 20-30 mm long, infundibuliform, pale yellow, with brown-purple nerves; lobes ± obtuse, unequal; tube glandular-pilose to the outside. Stamens subexserted, unequal. Lower part of filament pilose, purplish. Style exceeding the stamens in length, purplish. Pyxidium 11-13 mm long, ± pitcher-shaped; operculum usually of a darker colour. Seeds ± 1.2 mm long, reniform, rugose-tuberculate, brown.
Used for dysmenorrhea, premature ejaculation, nocturnal discharges, abdominal colic, abdominal distention, abdominal lumps, calculus, cough, asthma, insomnia, insanity, spasmodic pain, and joint pain (therapeutic uses based on texts from the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries). Seeds are used as a sedative, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anthelmintic (prevent griping pain when added to cathartics), astringent and anodyne in Ayurvedic and Unani systems. Leaves are preferred in other systems. Seeds possess narcotic properties, and in large doses produces poisonous effects like datura poisoning. [Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeial Plant Drugs: Expanded Therapeutics]

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha. Hallucinogenic, toxic. This plant, in the roots, leaves and seeds, contains several alkaloids, and it has caused rare poisoning in humans, cattle, poultry and swine. Its hallucinogenic effects have led people to eat the seed or chew the flowers, often with detrimental results, the major affect of hyoscyamine is depression of the central nervous system. Ingestion causes anticholinergic syndrome with stimulatory and hallucinatory effects. Post- mortem examination showed degeneration of heart muscle and cyanosis of mucous membranes. Whole plant vermifuge. Fried leaves applied over the forehead to relieve pain and headache. Leaves and flowering tops used in asthma. Leaves and fruits decoction given in whooping cough and asthma. Powdered seeds and leaves given as sedative and antispas- modic, for asthma, intestinal worms, whooping cough. Seeds astringent, used as an anaesthetic and for relieving muscu- lar spasm and pain, toothache, diarrhea, neuralgia, hysteria, asthma, cough, skin inflammation; powdered seeds given to subside pain, toothache and asthma. Magico-religious plant, ritual, for exorcism, Lamas burn the seeds and blow the smoke into the patient’s mouth. Veterinary medicine, leaf extract applied in sprains. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Relieve spasm and pain, cause tranquilization. [Herbal and Traditional Medicine]

71 Published articles of  Hyoscyamus niger

Sunday, July 9, 2017

Taxus baccata, Common Yew, Eibe, Կենի հատապտղային, طقسوس توتي, Обикновен тис, Harilik jugapuu, ურთხელი, ヨーロッパイチイ, Idegran, Тис ягодный

Taxus baccata L.
Family: Taxaceae

Synonyms: Cephalotaxus adpressa Beissn., Cephalotaxus brevifolia Beissn., Cephalotaxus tardiva Siebold ex Endl., Taxus adpressa Carrière, Taxus aurea K.Koch, Taxus baccata var. adpressa-aurea A.Henry, Taxus baccata f. aurea (J.Nelson) Pilg., Taxus baccata var. cavendishii Hornibr., Taxus baccata var. dovastoniana Leight., Taxus baccata f. dovastoniana (Leight.) Rehder, Taxus baccata var. dovastonii-aurea Sénécl., Taxus baccata var. dovastonii-aureovariegata Beissn., Taxus baccata var. dovastonii-variegata Gordon, Taxus baccata var. elegantissima C.Lawson, Taxus baccata f. elegantissima (C.Lawson) Beissn., Taxus baccata var. erecta Loudon, Taxus baccata f. erecta (Loudon) Pilg., Taxus baccata f. ericoides (Carrière) Pilg., Taxus baccata f. expansa (Carrière) Rehder, Taxus baccata var. glauca Jacques ex Carrière, Taxus baccata f. glauca (Jacques ex Carrière) Beissn., Taxus baccata f. linearis (Carrière) Pilg., Taxus baccata var. lutea Endl., Taxus baccata f. lutea Rehder, Taxus baccata var. macrocarpa Lavallée, Taxus baccata f. pendula (J.Nelson) Pilg., Taxus baccata f. pendula-graciosa (Overeynder) Beissn., Taxus baccata var. pendula-overeynderi Fitschen, Taxus baccata var. prostrata Bean, Taxus baccata var. pyramidalis C.Lawson, Taxus baccata f. pyramidalis (C.Lawson) Beissn., Taxus baccata f. repandens (Parsons) Rehder, Taxus baccata f. semperaurea (Dallim.) Rehder, Taxus baccata f. stricta (C.Lawson) Rehder, Taxus baccata var. variegata Weston, Taxus baccata f. variegata (Weston) Rehder, Taxus baccata f. xanthocarpa Kuntze, Taxus baccifera Theophr. ex Bubani, Taxus columnaris K.Koch, Taxus communis J.Nelson, Taxus communis var. pyramidalis (hort. ex Ravenscr., C. Lawson & et al.) Nelson, Taxus disticha Wender. ex Henkel & Hochst., Taxus dovastonii Carrière, Taxus elegantissima Carrière, Taxus elvastonensis Beissn., Taxus empetrifolia Gordon, Taxus erecta Carrière, Taxus ericoides Carrière, Taxus expansa K.Koch, Taxus fastigiata Lindl., Taxus foxii Carrière, Taxus hibernica Hook. ex Loudon, Taxus horizontalis Carrière, Taxus imperialis Gordon, Taxus jacksonii K.Koch, Taxus lugubris Salisb., Taxus marginata Carrière, Taxus michelii Carrière, Taxus microphylla Gordon, Taxus mitchellii Carrière, Taxus monstrosa Gordon, Taxus nana Parl., Taxus parvifolia Wender., Taxus pectinata Gilib., Taxus pendula Carrière, Taxus pyramidalis Carrière, Taxus pyramidalis (hort. ex Ravenscr., C. Lawson & et al.) Severin, Taxus recurvata C.Lawson, Taxus sparsifolia Loudon, Taxus tardiva (Siebold ex Endl.) C.Lawson, Taxus variegata Carrière, Taxus virgata Wall. ex Gordon, Verataxus adpressa (Carrière) Carrière
  • English: Common Yew 
  • Sanskrit: Sukapushpa, Vikarna
  • \Bengali: Birmi, Talish Patra
  • Gujarathi: Gethela Barmi
  • Hindi: Thuner, Talispatra Bhed
  • Kannada: Sthauneyak
  • Malayalam: Thuriangam
  • Marathi: Sthauney Barmi
  • Tamil, Telugu: Talisapatri Bhedam
  • Afrikaans: Yf
  • Alemannisch: Eibe
  • Arabic: طقسوس توتي
  • Armenian: Կենի հատապտղային
  • Azerbaujani: Giləmeyvəli qaraçöhrə
  • Basque: Hagin arrunt
  • Breton: Ivin (gwez)
  • Bulgarian: Обикновен тис
  • Catalan: Teix
  • Chinese: 歐洲紅豆杉
  • Croatian: Tisa (biljka)
  • Czech: Tis červený
  • Danish: Almindelig Taks
  • Dutch: Venijnboom
  • Estonian: Harilik jugapuu
  • Finnish: Euroopanmarjakuusi
  • French: If commun
  • Georgian: ურთხელი
  • German: Europäische Eibe
  • Greek: Ίταμος (φυτό)
  • Hebrew: טקסוס מעונב
  • Hungarian: Közönséges tiszafa
  • Japanese: ヨーロッパイチイ
  • Lithuanian: Europinis kukmedis
  • Nepali: बर्मेसल्ला
  • Norwegian: Barlind
  • Pashto: اروپايي ټاکسوس
  • Persian: سرخدار
  • Polish: Cis pospolity
  • Russian: Тис ягодный
  • Swedish: Idegran
  • Turkish: Yaygın porsuk
  • Ukrainian: Тис ягідний
  • Urdu: یورپی سرخدار
  • Vietnamese: Thanh tùng châu Âu
Used for blood disorders, morbid thirst, moles, burning syndrome, worm infestations, pimples, and tumors (therapeutic uses based on texts from 1000 bc to sixteenth century). Sthauneya belonged to Elādi varga, Karpurādi varga and Chandanādi varga during the  classical period of Ayurveda. [Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeial Plant Drugs: Expanded Therapeutics]

Used in Ayurveda, Unani and Sidha. Extremely toxic, death is likely. Taxus baccata has caused poisoning and death in cattle, horses, livestock, pets and birds, and humans. Stem and leaves abortifacient, diaphoretic, antirheumatic, antiinflammatory, purgative, for rheumatism, malaria, epilepsy, coughs, tuberculosis, cold. Tincture from the young shoots used to control headache, giddiness, diarrhea and biliousness. Bark used in cough and cold. Pounded leaves given orally for asthma, bronchial disorders and indigestion. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Rheumatism, malaria, epilepsy, purgative (in south africa) [Handbook of African Medicinal Plants, Second Edition]

Herb—CNS depressant; reduces motor activity; analgesic, anticonvulsant. Leaf used in nervousness, epilepsy, hysteria, asthma, chronic bronchitis. Leaf and fruit—antispasmodic, sedative, emmenagogue. Berry—used in chronic bronchitis. Taxol—antimitotic; also being tried for the treatment of severe drug-resistant human malaria. [Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary]

The leaves contain a volatile oil, tannic and gallic acids, and a resinous substance called toxin. Yew leaves and fruits have been given for their emmenagogue, sedative and anti-spasmodic effects. Pereira says that therapeutically the yew appears to hold an intermediate position between Savin and Digitalis, being allied to the former by its acrid, diuretic and emmenagogue properties, and to the latter by the giddiness, irregular and depressed action of the heart, convulsions and insensibility, which it produces. Yew is, however, reported to have one decided advantage over Digitalis by its effects not accumulating in the system, so that it is a much more manage- able remedy than Digitalis. Besides its use as an emmenagogue and sedative in the same cases as Savin and Digitalis are administered, it has also been employed as a lithic in calculus complaints ; and as an anti-spasmodic in epilepsy and convulsions. According to Dr. Taylor the yew tree is sometimes used by ignorant persons to cause abortion. [Indian medicinal plants]

185 Pulished articles of Taxus baccata
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officinalis Enterolobium cyclocarpum Ephedra foliata Ephedra gerardiana Epipactis helleborine Eranthemum pulchellum Eryngium foetidum Erysimum hieraciifolium Erythrina suberosa Erythrina variegata Euonymus echinatus Euonymus japonicus Eupatorium capillifolium Eupatorium perfoliatum Euphorbia antiquorum Euphorbia cornigera Euphorbia cotinifolia Euphorbia granulata Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbia hirta Euphorbia hypericifolia Euphorbia milii Euphorbia nivulia Euphorbia peplus Euphorbia tirucalli Fagonia cretica Fagopyrum acutatum Ferula foetida Ficus elastica Ficus religiosa Filicium decipiens Filipendula vestita Flacourtia indica Flemingia procumbens Flemingia semialata Foeniculum vulgare Free Access Journal Fumaria indica Fumaria parviflora Furcraea foetida Galega officinalis General Gentiana kurroo Geranium lucidum Geranium nepalense Geranium pratense Geranium wallichianum Ghee Globba schomburgkii Glochidion hohenackeri Gloriosa superba Glycyrrhiza glabra Gmelina arborea Gomphrena globosa Gomphrena serrata Goodyera repens Grewia asiatica Grewia optiva Grewia serrulata Grewia tenax Gymnema sylvestre Habenaria edgeworthii Handroanthus impetiginosus Hedychium spicatum Helianthus annuus Helicteres isora Helinus lanceolatus Heliotropium indicum Hemidesmus indicus Hemigraphis alternata Hemigraphis colorata Hemigraphis hirta Heracleum sphondylium Herpetospermum pedunculosum Hibiscus cannabinus Hibiscus esculentus Hibiscus hirtus Hibiscus lobatus Hibiscus radiatus Hibiscus vitifolius Hippophae rhamnoides Holarrhena antidysenterica Holarrhena pubescens Holoptelea integrifolia Hosta plantaginea Hoya carnosa Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Hydrolea zeylanica Hygrophila auriculata Hygrophila polysperma Hygrophila schulli Hylocereus undatus Hymenocallis speciosa Hyoscyamus niger Hypericum dyeri Hypericum elodeoides Hypericum oblongifolium Hyptis suaveolens Ilex dipyrena Impatiens balsamina Impatiens racemosa Indigofera aspalathoides Indigofera astragalina Indigofera glabra Ipomoea alba Ipomoea aquatica Ipomoea marginata Isodon rugosus Ixeris polycephala Jacaranda mimosifolia Jacquemontia pentantha Jasminum auriculatum Jasminum multiflorum Jatropha curcas Jatropha gossypifolia Juncus thomsonii Justicia adhatoda Justicia brandegeeana Justicia carnea Justicia gendarussa Justicia pubigera Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Kallstroemia pubescens Koelreuteria elegans Koenigia delicatula Kopsia fruticosa Kydia calycina Kyllinga brevifolia Lablab purpureus Lactuca dissecta Lantana camara Lathyrus sativus Leea aequata Lens culinaris Leonotis nepetifolia Leonurus cardiaca Lepidium sativum Lepisanthes rubiginosa Leucas aspera Leucas nutans Leucostemma latifolium Leycesteria formosa Ligularia amplexicaulis Ligularia fischeri Lilium polyphyllum Linum usitatissimum Liparis nervosa Liquidambar formosana Litsea monopetala Lupinus angustifolius Macaranga peltata Maesa argentea Magnolia champaca Mahonia napaulensis Malachra Capitata Mallotus nudiflorus Mallotus philippinensis Malva sylvestris Malvastrum coromandelianum Martynia annua Medicago lupulina Medicinal Plants of India Melilotus indicus Melochia corchorifolia Memecylon edule Memecylon umbellatum Mercurialis annua Meriandra strobilifera Merremia cissoides Mesua ferrea Micrococca mercuriali Micromeria biflora Mikania micrantha Millettia pinnata Mimosa polyancistra Mimosa pudica Mitragyna parvifolia Modiola caroliniana Momordica charantia Momordica cochinchinensis Morinda citrifolia Morinda pubescens Moringa oleifera Mucuna pruriens Muehlenbeckia platyclada Muehlenbeckia platyclados Muntingia calabura Murdannia nudiflora Murraya koenigii Muscari neglectum Myriactis nepalensis Myristica fragrans Myrtus communis Naravelia zeylanica Nardostachys grandiflora Nardostachys jatamansi Naringi crenulata Nasturtium officinale Nelumbo nucifera Neolamarckia cadamba Nepeta laevigata Nerium indicum Nerium oleander Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Nicotiana rustica Nicotiana tabacum Nigella sativa Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Nymphaea nouchali Nymphaea pubescens Nymphoides indica Ocimum basilicum Ocimum gratissimum Ocimum kilimandscharicum Ocimum sanctum Oldenlandia umbellata Ononis natrix Ononis repens Ononis spinosa Operculina turpethum Origanum majorana Oroxylum indicum Osteospermum ecklonis Others Oxyria digyna Pachygone ovata Pachyrhizus erosus Paederia foetida Pandanus tectorius Passiflora caerulea Passiflora vitifolia Pavetta indica Pentapetes phoenicea Pentas lanceolata Peperomia argyreia Peperomia heyneana Peperomia pellucida Peperomia sandersii Peperomia tetraphylla Perilla frutescens Persicaria amplexicaulis Persicaria barbata Persicaria capitata Persicaria glabra Persicaria nepalensis Phalaenopsis taenialis Phaulopsis dorsiflora Philodendron bipinnatifidum Phlomis bracteosa Phlomoides bracteosa Phyllanthus acidus Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthus fraternus Phyllanthus lawii Phyllanthus rotundifolius Physalis grisea Physalis peruviana Picrorhiza kurroa Pilea microphylla Piper betle Piper longum Piper nigrum Pisonia aculeata Pistia stratiotes Pisum sativum Plantago orbignyana Plantago ovata Platanthera edgeworthii Platostoma elongatum Plectranthus barbatus Plectranthus scutellarioides Plumbago auriculata Plumbago capensis Plumbago zeylanica Plumeria rubra Podranea ricasoliana Polemonium caeruleum Polygala crotalarioides Polygala persicariifolia Polygonatum verticillatum Polygonum amplexicaule Polygonum barbatum Polygonum recumbens Pongamia pinnata Portulaca oleracea Portulaca umbraticola Portulacaria afra Potentilla fruticosa Potentilla supina Premna corymbosa Premna tomentosa Primula denticulata Primula floribunda Primula vulgaris Prunus Amygdalus Prunus dulcis Pseuderanthemum carruthersii Pseudobombax ellipticum Pseudocaryopteris foetida Psidium guajava Psidium guineense Pterocarpus santalinus Pterospermum acerifolium Pterospermum lanceifolium Pterygota alata Pulicaria dysenterica Punica granatum Putranjiva roxburghii Pyrostegia venusta Quisqualis indica Ranunculus arvensis Ranunculus laetus Ranunculus sceleratus Raphanus sativus Rauvolfia serpentina Rauvolfia tetraphylla Reinwardtia indica Rhamphicarpa fistulosa Rhodiola trifida Rhodiola wallichiana Rhododendron arboreum Rhynchosia himalensis Rhynchosia viscosa Ricinus communis Rorippa indica Roscoea purpurea Rosmarinus officinalis Ruellia patula Ruellia prostrata Ruellia tuberosa Rumex dentatus Rumex hastatus Rungia pectinata Saccharum officinarum Saccharum spontaneum Salix denticulata Salix tetrasperma Salvadora persica Salvia involucrata Salvia nubicola Salvia splendens Sambucus canadensis Sambucus mexicana Sambucus nigra Santalum album Sapindus saponaria Saussurea auriculata Saussurea candicans Saussurea obvallata Scadoxus multiflorus Scutellaria grossa Scutellaria repens Sedum oreades Semecarpus anacardium Senna auriculata Senna occidentalis Senna siamea Senna sophera Sesbania bispinosa Sesbania grandiflora Seseli diffusum Sesuvium portulacastrum Setaria verticillata Shorea robusta Sida cordata Sida cordifolia Sida retusa Sida spinosa Sideritis hirsuta Smithia ciliata Solanum chrysotrichum Solanum erianthum Solanum jasminoides Solanum melongena Solanum nigrum Solanum sisymbriifolium Solanum surattense Solanum torvum Solanum tuberosum Solanum villosum Soymida febrifuga Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Sphenoclea zeylanica Spiranthes australis Spiranthes sinensis Spondias pinnata Stellaria media Stephania japonica Sterculia alata Sterculia foetida Sterculia villosa Stereospermum tetragonum Stevia rebaudiana Striga asiatica Strophanthus boivinii Strychnos potatorum Suaeda maritima Suregada multiflora Swertia angustifolia Swertia bimaculata Swertia cordata Swertia paniculata Swietenia macrophylla Swietenia mahagoni Syzygium alternifolium Syzygium aromaticum Syzygium cumini Syzygium jambos Syzygium samarangense Tabebuia aurea Tabebuia avellanedae Talinum portulacifolium Tamarindus indica Taxus baccata Tecoma castanifolia Tephrosia purpurea Teramnus labialis Terminalia alata Terminalia catappa Terminalia chebula Terminalia elliptica Terminalia pallida Teucrium botrys Teucrium royleanum Thalictrum foliolosum Thespesia populnea Thunbergia erecta Thunbergia fragrans Thunbergia grandiflora Thymus linearis Tiliacora acuminata Tiliacora racemosa Tinospora cordifolia Tinospora crispa Tinospora sinensis Toona ciliata Trewia nudiflora Tribulus terrestris Trichodesma indicum Trichosanthes cucumerina Trichosanthes palmata Trichosanthes tricuspidata Trifolium repens Trigonella foenum-graecum Triumfetta rhomboidea Uraria picta Urena lobata Urena sinuata Urginea coromandeliana Vachellia horrida Valeriana jatamansi Vanda tessellata Veronica serpyllifolia Viburnum coriaceum Vicia bakeri Vicia faba Vicia sativa Vigna radiata Vigna unguiculata Vinca rosea Viola rupestris Viscum album Vitex negundo Vitis vinifera Withania somnifera Wrightia tinctoria Wulfeniosis amherstiana Zamia furfuracea Ziziphus jujuba Ziziphus mauritiana