Wednesday, December 6, 2017

Strychnos minor, Snake wood tree, Naagamushti, Cherukanjiravally, lengkoyan, bugahin, tum kaa daeng, kim lu[oo]ng


Strychnos minor Dennst. 
Syn.  Strychnos lenticellata Hill
Family: Loganiaceae
  • English: Snake wood tree
  • Telugu: Naagamushti
  • Malayalam: Cherukanjiravally
  • Indonesia: ipu tanah, ranosandang, wale ammelaum
  • Malaysia: lengkoyan, semiyo akar
  • Philippines: bugahin, bukuan, pamulaklakin
  • Thailand: tum kaa daeng, tum kaa khao
  • Vietnam: kim lu[oo]ng, thu[oor]c m[oj]i

Description: Climbing shrubs; bark pale brown; tendrils 2-branched. Leaves 5.5-14 x 2.8-5.4 cm, ovate or elliptic-ovate, base obtuse or rounded, apex acute or acuminate, coriaceous, 3-ribbed from a little above the base; petiole to 1.2 cm long. Flowers white in cymes up to 3 cm long. Calyx lobes c. 1 mm long. Corolla tube c. 2 mm long, throat wooly; lobes ovate-acute, as long as the tube. Berry woody 2-2.5 cm across. Seeds 1-3, orbicular

It is used in the Philippines to treat throat trouble. A decoction of bark is used as an emmenagogue, and the Negritos chew the bark to treat prolapse of the uterus. The seeds are poisonous on probable account of strychnine and congeners. [Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants Asia and the Pacific]

15 Published articles of  Strychnos minor

Sunday, November 26, 2017

Tylophora indica, Indian ipecacuanha, Antamul, dum vel, jangli pikvan, vallippala, bedaki, mekameyani aaku, nayppalai, antrapachaka

Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr.
Family:  Asclepiadoideae

  • English: emetic swallow-wort, Indian ipecacuanha
  • Assamese: অংতমূল Antamul
  • Bengali: অন্তমূল antomula
  • Gujarati: દમ વેલ dum vel
  • Hindi: अंतमूल antamul, जंगली पीकवान jangli pikvan
  • Kannada: ಅಡುಮುಟ್ಟದಗಿಡ adumuttadagida, ಅಂತಮೂಲ antamula, ಕಿರುಮಂಜಿ kirumanji, ನಾಯಿಹಾಲೆ naayihaale, ನೆಪಾಳದಬೇರು naepalada baeru
  • Konkani: पितवेल pitvel
  • Malayalam: വള്ളിപ്പാല vallippala
  • Marathi: अंतमूळ antamul, बेडकी bedaki, खडकी रास्‍ना khadaki rasna, पितमारी pitamari
  • Oriya: ମେହେନ୍ଦି mehendi, Mulini
  • Sanskrit: अन्त्रपाचक antrapachaka, लताक्षीरी latakshiri
  • Tamil: கழுதைப்பாலை kalutai-p-palai, நச்சறுப்பான் naccaruppan, நாய்ப்பாலை nay-p-palai
  • Telugu: మేక మేయని ఆకు, కొండబెండ
4 morphological variations in floral structure of Tylophora indica; 1 is normal , widely available; another 2 rarely seen, one is completely yellow, hairy; another one more purplish; last one with hairs on innerside of petals, the petals are not yellow, pinkish; this is to show the intra species variation in a species

Used in Ayurveda. Intake of any part of the plant causes fatal  poisoning; when drunk the juice produces nausea, vomiting.  Roots stimulant, emetic, expectorant, potentially antitumor,  stomachic, diaphoretic, antispasmodic, used for the treatment  of asthma, bronchitis, whooping cough, dysentery, diarrhea.  Leaves emetic, diaphoretic, chewed for asthma; leaf decoction taken for body pain. Roots and leaves used in hydrophobia. Tylophora alkaloids inhibit cellular immune responses  like contact sensitivity to dinitro-flurobenzene and delayed  hypersensitivity to sheep red blood cells, in vivo; these alkaloids suppress cellular immune responses when administered  at any stage during the immune response, have been shown  to  have  antiasthmatic,  antiinflammatory  and  antianaphy lactic properties. Cytotoxic alkaloids. Veterinary medicine,  leaves ground with those of Tinospora cordifolia and goat  milk, given in insect bite; leaves along with pepper and garlic  made into a paste and given as antidote; entire plant for lung  problems and asthma. (CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants)

The whole plant yielded alkaloids including tylophorine, tylphorinine, desmethyltylophorine and desmethyltylophorinine, and a flavonoid kaempferol. The root yielded alkaloids, tylophorinidine and gamma-fagarine. The leaves gave tylophorinidine, dsepticine, d-iso-tylocrebrine; triterpenoids alpha-and beta-amyrin; betasitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol; phenylalanine; and quercetin. Ceryl alcohol has also been reported from the plant.

The plant exhibited anti-amoebic activity against axenic and polyaxenic strains of Entamoeba histolytica. Tylophorine and 4-methoxy-14-hydroxytylophorine are 2 and 4 times more effective, respectively, than the standard drugs Emetine dihydrochloride and Metroindazole. Tylophorine is found effective in intestinal as well as hepatic amoebiasis in test animals, but its gross toxicity excludes its potential use in humans. Tylophorine also exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour properties. Desmethyltylophorinegave promising results in leukaemia. The drug irritates the digestive tract. (Indian Medicinal Plants An Illustrated Dictionary)

Tylophora indica (Burm. f.)  Merr. : Folklore: Yanandi people in Andhra Pradesh chew  leaves  daily  in  the  morning in severe  bronchitis. Modem Use  : Leaf powder is  used in bronchitis. (Herbal Cures: Traditional Approach)

157 Published papers on  Tylophora indica

Wednesday, September 27, 2017

Cissus quadrangularis, हड़जोड़, হাড়জোড়া, ಮಂಗರವಳ್ಳಿ, ചങ്ങലംപരണ്ട, నల్లేరు, பிரண்டை, เพชรสังฆาต, Devil's Backbone

Cissus quadrangularis L.
Family: Vitaceae

Synonyms: Cissus bifida Schumach. & Thonn., Cissus edulis Dalzell, Cissus quadrangula L., Cissus quadrangula Salisb., Cissus succulenta (Galpin) Burtt-Davy, Cissus tetragona Harv., Cissus tetraptera Hook.f., Cissus triandra Schumach. & Thonn., Saelanthus quadragonus (L.) Forssk., Vitis quadrangularis (L.) Wall. ex Wight, Vitis succulenta Galpin

Vernacular names:
  • English: Devil's Backbone
  • Bangla: হাড়জোড়া
  • Hindi: हड़जोड़ hadjod
  • Kannada: ಮಂಗರವಳ್ಳಿ mangaravalli
  • Kinyarwanda: Umubogora
  • Malayalam: ചങ്ങലംപരണ്ട
  • Odia: ହାଡ଼ଭଙ୍ଗା 
  • Sinhala: Hiressa
  • Sanskrit: Amara, Asthisamhara
  • Tamil: பிரண்டை pirandai
  • Telugu: నల్లేరు nalleru
  • Thai: เพชรสังฆาต
  • Vietnamese: Hồ đằng bốn cạnh
Description: Vine, rambling shrub, herbaceous, climbing, scandent, sprawling, jointed stems, quadrangular and four-winged succulent stems rooting at the nodes, young branches winged bearing long slender tendrils, simple leaves broadly ovate, flowers in clusters at nodes, perianth green with red lobes, apiculate berries, tender leaves as vegetable.

Aphrodisiac, carminative [Medicinal Plants Kerala Ag. University]

Used in Ayurveda, Sidha and Unani. Presence of calcium oxalate crystals, irritating action of the fresh stem on the skin. Powdered root and stem specifically used in bone fracture. Root decoction antioxidant, widely used as remedy for hemorrhoids, in the treatment of gastric ulcers, peptic ulcer disease, dysentery; crushed stem and roots used as a plaster for bone fractures, analgesic, haemostatic. Whole plant infusion purgative. Succulent stem crushed with onion given orally for asthma; stem juice applied on swellings, body pains and bone fracture; stem juice for irregular menstruation and scurvy, dropped into ear for earache and into nose for epistaxis; stem paste for fertility, applied on rheumatic disorders; stem decoction in lime water taken as stomachic and alterative; paste of shoot for burns and wounds. Ash of leaves and shoots in bowel complaints and digestive troubles. Veterinary medicine, leaves infusion for diarrhea of calves; leaf paste applied on bone fracture; leaves ground with those of Pedalium murex and the decoction given in fevers; leaves of Crotalaria verrucosa along with those of Cissus quadrangularis pounded and given for ephemeral fever; stem fed in the bone fracture of cattle; stem juice with salt given to cure anorexia; roots of Indigofera trita along with stem bark of Balanites aegyptiacus, stem of Cissus quadrangularis and Tinospora cordifolia pounded and the extract given in impaction; stem and the leaves of Erythroxylum monogynum pounded and the extract applied over the fractured area and bandaged; stem extract given in dysentery; stem paste applied on sprains and swellings; warm crushed plant applied locally on wounds of oxen. [CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants]

Phytoconstituents: Quadrangularins A-C, 5-amyrin, 5-amyrone, resveratrol, piceatannol, pallidol,parthenocissine A and others.  Whole plant is used for urinary schistosomiasis in Mali.[A Guide to Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated, Scientific and Medicinal Approach]

A  mixture  of stem  powder  and wheat flour  in  1:1  ratio  is  fed  to animals  to  cure  fractures  and  dislocations  of  bones. [Herbal Cures: Traditional Approach]

The leaves and young shoots are powerful alteratives.  The juice of the stem is a reputed  cure  for  scurvy  and irregular  menstruation.  The juice is dropped into  the  ear for otorrhoea and into the nose for epistaxis.  The root is used as a specific for fractures of bones. In Tanganyika, the leaf is used for treating ulcers and wounds, the root for  myalgia and  the juice of the stem for earache. In central Africa, a decoction of the stem is given for Menorrhagia, palpitation  of the heart and as an anthelmintic.  Externally, a poultice of the plant is applied for  muscular pains.  This plant  is also used  as a fish poison. [Medicinal Plants (Indigenous and Exotic) Used in Ceylon]

The fresh leaves and pounded stems are applied to burns, wounds and also to saddle sores of horses, camels, etc. The stem is also used for gastrointestinal complaints or as a stomachic sometimes taken in the form of the succulent stem boiled and sugared. In Guinea the stems and leaves are given to cattle to induce milk and in Senegal a decoction of the stems and leaves is used as a friction and wash in pains with fever and in malaria. [Medicinal Plants in Tropical West Africa]

270 Published articles of  Cissus quadrangularis

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